Formatting of references



Example of Styling References (APA reference style, 6th ed.)




1. Single author    

Rokiah (2009) or  Dey (1993) dan Lueck (2015)

Rokiah (2009, p. 45-50) or (Dey, 1993, Chapter 3) 

(Rokiah, 2009, p.5)  or (Dey, 1993) or (Dey, 1993a, 1993b; Lueck, 2015, 2017; Rokiah, 2009)



Abbreviation for Group

- First time quote:

American Psychiatric Association [APA] (2000) or 

(American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000)


- Second and subsequent citations:

APA (2000) or (APA, 2000)



> Author, A. A. (1967). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
> Author, A. A. (1997). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx
> Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (1986). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

> Author, A. A. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B., Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title            of book (pp. xxx—xxx). Location: Publisher.

> Reviewer, A. A. (2000). of review [Review of the book Title of book, by A. A. Author]. Title of            complete work, xx, xxx—xxx.


Rokiah Talib. (2009). Raja Alias Muhammad: The architect of Felda. Bangi, Selangor: Penerbit UKM.


Dey, I. (1993). Qualitative data analysis: A user-friendly guide for social scientists. London, England: Routledge.



Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2005). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.


Article/ Journal:

> Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, vol(issue), pp—pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx


Lueck, J. A. (2015). Friend-zone with benefits: The parasocial advertising of Kim Kardashian. Journal of Marketing Communications, 21(2), 91-109.



American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text re.). Washington, DC: Author.

2. Multiple authors (two or three)

Inthiran, Alhashmi & Ahmed (2013)

(Khatijah & Noraini, 2007)


(Khatijah & Noraini, 2007, Vol. 3)



> Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1967). Title of work. Location: Publisher.


Khatijah Hussin, & Noraini Talip. (2007). Anatomical atlas of Malaysian medicinal plants (Vol. 3). Bangi, Selangor: Penerbit UKM.


Article/ Journal:

> Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, vol(issue),            pp—pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx


Inthiran, A., Alhashmi, S. M., & Ahmed, P. K. (2013). Online consumer health: A Malaysian perspective. Journal of Information Technology, 23(2).


Wilkinson, L., and the Task Force on Statistical Inference. (1999). Statistical methods in psychology journals: Guidelines and explanations. American Psychologist, 54, 594-604.

3. Multiple authors (more than three authors)

- First time quote:

Suzana, Zuriati, Suriah, dan Siti (2007)


(Lachlan, Spence, Edwards, Reno, & Edwards, 2014)


(Lachlan, Spence, Edwards, Reno, & Edwards, 2014; Suzana, Zuriati, Suriah, & Siti, 2007)


- Second and subsequent citations:

Suzana et al. (2007)

or (Lachlan et al. 2014)


One work by six or more authors:

Natale et al. (2014) or Picton et al. (2000) or (Natale et al., 2014) or (Picton et al., 2000)




Suzana Shahar, Zuriati Ibrahim, Suriah Abdul Rahman, & Siti Nur ‘asyura Adznam. (2007). Pemakanan dan Penilaian Kesihatan Warga Tua. Bangi, Selangor: Penerbit UKM.


Article/ Journal:

Lachlan, K. A., Spence, P. R., Edwards, A., Reno, K. M., & Edwards, C. (2014). If you are quick enough, I will think about it: Information speed and trust in public health organizations. Computers in Human Behavior, 33(1), 377-380.


Natale, R. A., Messiah, S. E., Asfour, L., Uhlhorn, S. B., Delamater, A., & Arheart, K. L. (2014). Role modeling as an early childhood obesity prevention strategy: Effect of parents and teachers on preschool children's healthy lifestyle habits. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 35(6), 378-387.


Picton, T. W., Benton, S., Berg, P., Donchin, E., Hillyard, S. A., Johnson, R. J., ... Taylor, M. J. (2000). Guidelines for using human event-related potentials to study cognition: Recording standards and publication criteria. Psychophysiology, 37, 127-152. doi:10.1111/1469-8986.3720127

4. Book – edited/ translated work

Zaharani (2008) or   Koch (1959—1963)


(Harlow, Mulaik, & Steiger, 1997;  VandenBos, 2007) or (Koch, 1959—1963)

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Harlow, L. L., Mulaik, S. A., & Steiger, J. H. (Eds). (1997). What if there were no significance tests? Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959—1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1—6). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

5.  Book – Chapter in a book

Fatimah (2008) or  Haybron (2008)

(Fatimah, 2008) or  (Haybron, 2008)

Fatimah Abdullah. (2008). Dampak pemodenan terhadap hubungan keluarga: Berat sama dipikul, ringan sama dijinjing. In Rahimah Abdul Aziz (Ed.), Transformasi masyarakat: Cabaran keluarga, gender dan sosiobudaya (pp. 25-46). Bangi, Selangor: Penerbit UKM.

Book Chapter, Print Version

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17—43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

*For a book with no editor, simply include the word In before the book title.

6. Other Published Sources

Tan (1997) or  Schwartz (1993)

(Tan, 1997) or   (Schwartz, 1993)

  Magazine Article

Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, F., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26—29.


Newspaper Article

Berita Harian. (1993, May 10). Kebun buah untuk pikat pelancong.


Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. Al, A4.


Brody, J. F. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times, pp. B5—B7.


Foreign Journal Article (Cite in English if use the translated one as the source)

Guimard, P., & Florin, A. (2007). Las evaluations des enseignants en grande section de maternelle sont-elles predictives des difficultes de lecture au cours préparatoire? [Are teacher ratings in kindergarten predictive of reading difficulties in first grade?]. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant, 19, 5—17.


Special Issue/ Section in a Journal

Greenfield, R, & Yan, Z. (Eds.). (2006). Children, adolescents, and the Internet [Special section]. Developmental Psychology, 42, 391—458.


Abstract as Original Source

Woolf, N. J., Young, S. L., Fanselow, M. S., & Butcher, L. L. (1991). MAP-2 expression in chohnoceptive pyramidal cells of rodent cortex and hippocampus is altered by Pavlovian conditioning [Abstract]. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 17, 480.

7. Reviews & Peer Commentary

Schatz (2000)


(Axelman & Shapiro, 2007)

Review of a Book

Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information, by J. S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290, 1304. doi:1 0.11 26/science 290 54951304


Reviews of a Video

Axelman, A., & Shapiro J. L. (2007). Does the solution warrant the problem? [Review of the DVD Brief therapy with adolescents, produced by the American Psychological Association, 2007]. PsycCRITIQUES, 52(51). doi:10.1037/a0009036


Peer Commentary on an article

Wolf, K. S. (2005). The future for Deaf individuals is not that bleak [Peer commentary on the paper "Decrease of Deaf potential in a mainstreamed environment" by K. S. Wolf 1. Retrieved from http:/fwww.personalityresearchorg/papers/hall.html#wolf

8. No Authors/ No Editor

“Six  Sites Meet,” (2006) or Heuristic. (n.d.) or the book College Bound Seniors (2008)


("Six Sites Meet," 2006) or (Heuristic., n.d.) or (the book College Bound Seniors, 2008)

Newsletter Article

When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, a book, brochure, or a report:


Six sites meet for comprehensive anti-gang initiative conference. (2006, November/December). OJJDP News @ a Glance.


Online Reference Work (No Author & No Editor)

In a reference to a work with no author, move the title to the author position, before the date of publication. A period follows the title:



Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from

9. Doctoral Dissertations & Master’s Theses

Adam (1973)


(McNiel, 2006)

For a doctoral dissertation or master's thesis available from a database service, use the following reference template:

> Author, A. A. (2003). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Doctoral dissertation or            master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)


Adams, R. J. (1973). Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher education and continuing education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from


Bruckman, A. (1997). MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a networked virtual world for kids (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Retrieved from


McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)


Carlbom, P (2000). Carbody and passengers in rail vehicle dynamics (Doctoral thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden). Retrieved from 3029

10. Online Archive (with/ without DOI*)

*when DOI is not available.

Freud (1900/1953) or  Brody (2007) or Marshall-Pescini & Whiten (2008)


(Freud, 1900/1953) or (Brody, 2007) or  (Marshall-Pescini & Whiten, 2008)


Journal Article with DOI

Schaie, K. W. (1993). Ageist language in psychological research. American Psychologist, 48, 49-51. doi: 10.1 037/0003-066X.48.1.49


Journal Article without DOI

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin,eduau/index. php/ejap


Electronic Version of Print Book

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036 /0071393722


Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from


Electronic Version of Republished Book

Freud, S. (1953). The method of interpreting dreams: An analysis of a specimen dream. In U. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 4, pp. 96—121). Retrieved from (Original work published 1900)


Electronic Version of Book Chapter in a Volume in a Series

Strong, E. K., Jr., & Uhrbrock, R. S. (1923). Bibliography on job analysis. In L. Outhwaite (Series Ed.), Personnel Research Series: Vol. 1. Job analysis and the curriculum (pp. 140—146). doi: 10.1037/10762-000


Online Magazine

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from


Online Newspaper Article

Brody, J. F. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from


Online In-Press Article

Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenornenological Research. Retrieved from


Online-only Supplemental Material

Marshall-Pescini, S., & Whiten, A. (2008). Social learning of nut-cracking behavior in East African sanctuary-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) [Supplemental material]. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122, 186—194. doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.122.2.186


Abstract as Original Source

Lassen, S. R., Steele, M. M., & Sailor, W. (2006). The relationship of school-wide positive behavior support to academic achievement in an urban middle school. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 701—712. Abstract retrieved from


Electronic Database (Limited-Circulation Book/ Monograph)

Thomas, N. (Ed.). (2002). Perspectives on th community college: A journey of discovery [Monograph]. Retrieved from


Entry in an Online Reference Work

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from


Online Governmental/ Corporate Report

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from


American Psychological Association, Task Force on the SexuaUzation of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from


Online Nongovernmental/ Institutional Report

Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation website:



McDaniel, J. E., & Miskel, C. G. (2002). The effect of groups and individuals on national decisionmaking: Influence and domination in the reading policy making environment (CIERA Report 3-025). Retrieved from University of Michigan, Center for Improvement of Early Reading Achievement website:


Online Conference/ Preceedings Paper

Liu, 5. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Retrieved from


Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, R, Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 12593—12598. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805417105


Katz, I., Gabayan, K., & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu, & P. Scheunders (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97-108). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978-3-5407460729

11. Unpublished and Informally Published Works

Blackwell and Conrod (2003)


(Ting, Florsheim, & Huang, 2008)

Unpublished dissertation or thesis, use the following template:

> Author, A. A. (1978). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.


Unpublished Manuscript with a University Cited

Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2003). A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives (Unpublished manuscript). Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.


Manuscript in Progress or Submitted for Publication

Ting, J. Y., Florsheim P., & Huang, W. (2008). Mental health help-seeking in ethnic minority populations: A theoretical perspective. Manuscript submitted for publication.


Unpublished Raw Data from Study, Untitled Work

Bordi, F., & LeDoux, J. E. (1993). [Auditory response latencies in rat auditory cortex]. Unpublished raw data.


Informally Published or self-archived work

Mitchell, S. D. (2000). The import of uncertainty. Retrieved from http://philsci-archive.pitt.edularchiVe/ 00000162/


Informally Published or Self-archived work, from ERIC

Kubota, K. (2007). "Soaking" model for learning: Analyzing Japanese learning/teaching process from a socio-historical perspective. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED498566)


Unpublished Papers, Lectures from an Archive or Personel Collection

Berliner, A. (1959). Notes for a lecture on reminiscences of Wundt and Leipzig. Anna Berliner Memoirs (Box M50). Archives of the History of American Psychology, University of Akron, Akron, OH.

12. Archival Documents and Collections

Sci-Art Publishers (1935)


(Smith, 1989)

Interview Recorded and Available in an Archive

Smith, M. B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C. A. Kiesler [Tape recording]. President's Oral History Project, American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC.


Transcription of a Recorded Interview, no recording available

Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F. Sparkman/lntentiewer: Orley B. Caudill. Mississippi Oral History Program (Vol. 289), University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.


Archival Source with Corporate Author

Subcommittee on Mental Hygiene Personnel in School Programs. (1949, November 5-6). Meeting of Subcommittee on Mental Hygiene Personnel in School Programs. David Shakow Papers (M1360). Archives of the History of American Psychology, University of Akron, Akron, OH.


Newspaper Article (historical) in an Archive or Personal Collection

Psychoanalysis institute to open. (1948, September 18). [Clipping from an unidentified Dayton, Ohio newspaper.] Copy in possession of author.


Historical Publication of Limited Circulation

Sci-Art Publishers. (1935). Sci-Art Publications [Brochurel. Cambridge, MA: Author. A. A. Roback Papers (HUGFP 104.50, Box 2, Folder "Miscellaneous Psychological Materials"), Harvard University Archives, Cambridge, MA.


Letter from a Repository

Frank, L. K. (1935, February 4). [Letter to Robert M. Ogden]. Rockefeller Archive Center (GEB series 1.3, Box 371, Folder 3877), Tarrytown, NY.


Letter from Private Collection

Zacharius, G. P (1953, August 15). [Letter to Wifliam Rickel (W. Rickel, Trans.)]. Copy in possession of Hendrika Vande Kemp.



[Photographs of Robert M. Yerkes]. (ca. 1917—1954). Robert Mearns Yerkes Papers (Box 137, Folder 2292), Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

13. Internet Message Boards, Electronic Mailing Lists, and Other Online Communities

Rampersad (2005)


(MiddleKid, 2007)

General Format

> Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http ://www.xxxx


Message Posted to a Newsgroup, Online Forum, or Discussion Group

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Re: Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from, weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments


Message Posted to an Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from


Blog Post (Using Author’s Pen/Nick/Screen Name)

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message). Retrieved from pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php


Video Blog Post

Norton, A. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from

14. Legal Materials

Court Decisions

Lessard v. Schmidt (1972)  or Dudlinger v. Artiles (1981/1984)


(Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)  or (Dudlinger v. Artiles, 1981/1984)



Mental Health Systems Act of 1988 or Mental Health Systems Act (1988) or (Mental Health Systems Act, 1988)



Administrative and Executive Materials

FDA Prescription Drug Advertising Rule (2006) or

(Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System, 2008)



Executive Order

Executive Order No. 11,609 (1994) or 

(Executive Order No.11,609, 1994)



U.S. Patent No. 123,445 (1988) or

(U.S. Patent No. 123,445, 1988)

Court Decisions Reference Format

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).


A Case

Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (ED. Wis. 1972).


An Appealed Case

Durtlinger v. Artiles, 563 F Supp. 322 CD. Kan. 1981), aff'd, 727 F2d 888 (10th Cir. 1984).


Unreported Decission

Gilliard v. Oswald, No. 76-2109 (2d Cir. March 16, 1977).


With Record Number

Dougherty v. Royal Zenith Corp., No. 88-8666, 1991 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10807, at *2 (ED. Pa. July 31, 1991).


Without Record Number

Gustin v. Mathews, No. 76-7-CS CD. Kan. Jan. 31, 1977) (LEXIS, Genfed library, Dist file).


A State Trial Court Opinion

Casey v. Pennsylvania-American Water Co., 12 Pa. D. & C.4th 168 (C.P. Washington County 1991).


A Federal District Court Opinion

David v. Monsanto Co., 627 F. Supp. 418 (S.D. W.Va. 1986).


A Case Appealed to a State Supreme Court

Compton v. Commonwealth, 239 Va. 312, 389 S.E.2d 460 (1990).


A Case Appealed to a State Court of Appeals

Texas v. Morales, 826 S.W.2d 201 (Tex. Ct. App. 1992).


Statutes Reference Format

Name of Act, Volume Source § section number (year)



Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. § 9401 (1988).


A Statute in a State Code

Mental Care and Treatment Act, 4 Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 59-2901-2941 (1983 & Supp. 1992).


A Statute in a Federal Code

Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.A. § 12101 et seq. (West 1993).


Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-336, § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991).


Administrative and Executive Materials Reference Format

Title/Number, Volume Source § xxx (year).


Federal Regulation

FDA Prescription Drug Advertising Rule, 21 C.F.R. § 202.1 (2006).


Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System, 73 Fed. Reg. 82,082 (proposed Jan. 11, 2008) (to be codified at 45 C.F.R. pt. 1355).


Executive Order

Exec. Order No. 11,609, 3 C.F.R 586 (1971—1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. 301 app. at 404-07 (1994).



Smith, I. M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.



American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).            London, England: Author.